Bibliography and Citation Style

The citation system used in IATED publications is based on the Vancouver system, which uses sequential numbers in the text to refer to the bibliographic references at the end of the paper. In particular, the citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets and numbers them consecutively, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed. This citation style is widely used in sciences and engineering.

  • References should be cited with numbers between brackets in order of appearance ([1], [2], [3] etc.).
  • The reference numbers in brackets ( [1], [2], [3]...) should be placed anywhere in the paper text where you wish to reference them. The same reference can be cited more than once in the text with the same reference number.

If you are using a commercial software to manage your references, you may directly use the following reference styles to get the same reference results on your paper.

  • Endnote: 'Transactions on Education' or 'Numbered'
  • Mendeley: 'IEEE Transactions on Education' or 'IEEE'
  • Bibtex: 'ieeetr'

Reference Examples

Example of a Journal/Conference Article Reference:
A.A. Author, "Article title," Periodical Title, vol. Volume, no. Issue, pp.-pp., Publication Year.

  • A. Einstein, “General theory of relativity,” Annalen der Physik, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 769–822, 1916.
  • L. D. Feisel, G. D. Peterson, O. Arnas, L. Carter, A. Rosa, and W. Worek, “Learning objectives for engineering education laboratories,” in Frontiers in Education, 2002. FIE 2002. vol. 2, pp. 1–4, 2002.

Example of a Book Reference:
A.A. Author, Title of work. City/State: Publisher, Year of Publication.

  • D. Schunk, Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective. Pearson, 2012.

Example of a Book Chapter Reference:
A.A. Author, "Chapter Title" in Title of work (Editors eds.), pp.-pp., City/State: Publisher, Year of Publication.

  • R. Mota and D. Scott, “Chapter 5 - education and innovation,” in Education for Innovation and Independent Learning (R. Mota and D. Scott, eds.), pp. 55 – 71, San Diego: Elsevier, 2014.

Example of a Journal Article found online:
Same format adding at the end doi:XX.XXXXX or Retrieved from journal URL

Example of an e-Book Reference:
Same format adding at the end [E-Reader Version]. Retrieved from http://xxxx or doi:xxxx

Example of an online resource:
A.A. Author, Resource title, Publication Title, Publication Year. Retrieved from http://xxxx
A website reference should contain author name(s), article/resource title and publication title where appropriate, adding at the end the date when the site was accessed and the URL from where it was retrieved.

  • Citing a general website article with an author:
    Gabriel García Márquez, The Solitude of Latin America, Nobel Lecture, 8 December, 1982. Retrieved from
  • Citing a general website resource without an author:
    Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Accessed 14 September, 2013. Retrieved from